If you have installed Office 2013 Service Pack 1 and SP1 for SharePoint Server (on Premise) you will have less problems with not allowed characters in filenames. There are only 2 chars left the users need to know.
|before Service Pack 1:
the image on the left side shows the characters, which are not allowed in OneDrive and OneDrive for business.
You see, that you have more restrictions in OneDrive for business, f.e. you are not allowed to use a “&” in the filename
|after Service Pack 1:
Now there are only 2 more characters left, you cannot use in filenames: # and %
for the other chars printed in white on the left image, it’s not so easy, to save a document with these not allowed chars in the filename.
The chars /\<>:*”?| are not allowed.
If you use f.e. the “#” in the filename of a word document, than it is interesting, that you see the following error message origin from Microsoft Office Upload Center:
it It is ok, but the solution shows the old invalid chars.
I hope, Microsoft will correct these chars in KB article KB905231